There are three Italian teams going into the draw for the first knockout round, while Inter drop into the Europa League.
It will be held on Monday at 11.00 GMT and the seeded teams will play the second leg at home.
Juve won their group and are therefore top seeds in the draw, so they cannot face Atletico Madrid (having already played in the group stage) or fellow Italians Napoli and Atalanta.
The Twitter account LaLigaenDirecto, run by mathematics graduate Fran Martinez, has calculated the percentage chances of each club being drawn together in the last-16.
According to Martinez, Juventus’s potential opponents to Borussia Dortmund, Chelsea, Lyon, Real Madrid and Tottenham Hotspur, with Chelsea being the most likely opponent.
As for Napoli, they are now under new coach Gennaro Gattuso, who could make his Champions League management debut against Barcelona, Bayern Munich, RB Leipzig, Manchester City, Paris Saint-Germain or Valencia.
Atalanta lost the first three games in their group, but still made it through to the knockouts in their debut Champions League campaign.
La Dea can be drawn against Barcelona, Bayern Munich, RB Leipzig, Liverpool, PSG or Valencia, with Valencia being their most likely opponent.
Group winners (seeded): Barcelona (ESP), Bayern Munich (GER), Juventus (ITA), RB Leipzig (GER), Liverpool (ENG), Manchester City (ENG), Paris Saint-Germain (FRA), Valencia (ESP)
Group runners-up (unseeded): Atalanta (ITA), Atletico Madrid (ESP), Borussia Dortmund (GER), Chelsea (ENG), Lyon (FRA), Napoli (ITA), Real Madrid (ESP), Tottenham Hotspur (ENG)